Introduction to the Petroleum and Mineral Deposits of the Tibetan Plateau Preliminary Database and Map

Friday, November 11, 2011

Tibetan Plateau blog published a preliminary map and database of petroleum and mineral deposits of the Tibetan Plateau. The map and the database seek to provide an overview of publically available information regarding petroleum and mineral deposits on the Tibetan Plateau. We hope to be able to produce future versions of increasing completeness and accuracy. As improvements are completed they will be made available on the Internet for the public to view and download without charge. Our approach has sought to avoid excessive technicalities while giving sufficient information that the lay public can better assess the actually and potential economic, human rights, and environmental effects of resource exploration, extraction and processing on the Tibetan Plateau. For those that want more detailed information on the deposits or the geology of the region a list of academic references is provided. While we have attempted to include names of the companies working on the various deposits, detailed information about the governmental and/or corporate organizations will have to be obtained elsewhere.


The Tibetan Plateau
The Tibetan Plateau in the PRC consists of the high altitude (generally over 3500 m.) region predominantly Tibetan culturally and historically. It consists of Tibet Autonomous region (Xizang), Qinghai, parts of Gansu, western Sichuan, and the northwest corner of Yunnan. Traditional Tibetan names for these areas being U-Tsang, Amdo, and Kham. Outside China the Tibetan Plateau extends into Ladakh, Spiti, Sikkim and Northeast India, as well as Mustang in Nepal. These are not considered in this map.

The following two maps created by the Environment and Development Desk of the Central Tibetan Administration in Dharamsala indicate the prefectures and counties of the Tibetan Plateau. The names given are those recognized by the Central Tibetan Administration.




The Databases
There are three databases in three Excel (.xls) spreadsheets: mineral deposits, salt lake and playa deposits, and petroleum deposits. The three databases have similar formats but have been separated as these different types of deposits are discovered and exploited differently.

Mineral deposits often require expensive exploration techniques, such as widespread stream, earth, and bedrock sampling, exploratory shafts, and diamond drilling. Both trenching and diamond drilling often leave surface modifications visible in Google Earth. Mines are either underground or open pit. They often can be recognized by the (blue roofed) buildings, evidence of exploration, a pit, and a tailings pond (an enclosed area where the waste material goes after processing the ore). Placer mining also often leaves visible traces such as pits and other damage to a river bed.

Salt lakes and playas (a deposit where the ancient salt lake has disappeared) are relatively easy to find and exploit. Tibetans have been exploiting salt lakes for salt, for trade and their own use, for hundreds of years. Basically all one needed to do is show up with a shovel and a means of getting the salt to the market. The relatively recent discovery that some salt lakes also include other valuable minerals like Lithium has added to the lakes' value. These additional minerals can be difficult to extract and could turn a simple, relatively clean operation into an environmental mess without proper application of environmental protection laws and technology. Officials are so often swayed by the opportunity to personally profit from a mining operation that it is unlikely that these will be applied. The Qiadam Basin in Qinghai contains a number of large salt lakes and playas, which have been exploited by the CCP since soon after the revolution.

Petroleum exploration is expensive, requiring large geological and geophysical surveys, and drilling at likely sites. It is carried by large organizations with deep pockets and close connections with the CCP, such as PetroChina. So far, on the Tibetan Plateau, the oil and gas have been found and extracted since the 1950's from the Qiadam Basin in Qinghai, but oil shale exploration is going on in TAR and China is currently looking forward to exploiting these deposits when oil prices get high enough to make it worthwhile.

"Opening Up the West"
Similar to the 19th century U.S. experience of occupying and assimilating the western region of North America through military intervention, subjection of the indigenous peoples, and immigration, in the late 1990s the PRC began a program of "Opening Up the West". This program included plans to build railways, roads, and airports in the western regions of China, the exploration and exploitation of mineral and petroleum resources, development of hydropower projects, and increased, mainly Chinese, tourism. These are supported on the plateau by a program to settle all nomads, forcing them to sell their stock and reside in villages built by the government, and immigration of Chinese workers to work at the mines, hydropower projects, and other construction projects. A thoroughgoing program of propaganda of suppressing outside observers, "patriotic reeducation", etc. while a presenting a "green" agenda and poverty aleviation as the motives to the world and the Chinese public is ongoing.

The plans have advanced considerable since the turn of the century. A railway from Golmud to Lhasa has been constructed, and other railways are in the works. Zangmu Hydropower Project, and many others are under construction throughout the plateau. The earlier small mines in Gyama have been consolidated into one large mine, and is presented as a model project, though it appears that considerable corruption of senior officials was involved. Many small mines operating, and mineral exploration projects are in progress on the plateau. Many of these are visible in Google Earth, or reported on in the media or Internet, even if there is no detailed written description of them available to the public. Primarily Chinese workers are employed on these projects. The local Tibetan population is poorly compensated for their loss of homes, pastures, farmland, or livestock. This type of behaviour is common in China, where CCP officials and their wealthy friends regularly push through mutually profitable projects at the expense of the people.

Hydropower and mining are intimately connected in the process of development. Electrical power is needed to operate mines, ore processing plants, smelters, and to provide some measure of comfort to attract immigrant workers. Mines provide the economic base to finance the hydropower projects, which are subsidized by Beijing.

The Contents of the Database
The database of deposits is in three .xls files, one for each of mineral deposits, salt lake and playa deposits, and petroleum deposits. The mineral deposit database is the real focus, but the others are important too. The minerals .xls file will be described.

The first column "Mapped?" simply indicates whether the deposit is on the map or not ("Y" or "N").

The second, third and fourth columns give the Name, Products, and Status of the deposit. There may be more than one Name given (e.g. "Deerni (Durngoi)").The Products are given in abbreviated form ("Au" rather than "Gold"). Status is one of ("Prospect", "Deposit", "Mine"). A Prospect is a deposit we are unsure about. A Deposit has known reserves for which there is good evidence. Either of these could be a mine but we don't know that at the time of publishing. A Mine is a deposit for which there is good evidence that it is being exploited. It may be small or large.

The next column, "Size", is a more complex measure of a deposit's significance. In general, we are treating Size as the amount of product the deposit contains (e.g. Cu 1.5 Mt), but more properly Size should take into account the Grade or the ore as well as how many tonnes have been proven (1% Cu X 50 Mt ore = 0.5 Mt Cu). The higher the Grade the cheaper the deposit is to exploit. The product is also important. For example, Gold is worth a lot more than Copper. 5 tonnes of gold is a Mine. 5 tonnes of copper is an Occurrence. Further, to give some indication of size where we don't have this information, the terms "Small", "Medium", and "Large" are used. The Geological Survey of Japan, along with their map of mineral deposits of Eastern Asia, has published a list of definitions for "Small, "Medium", and "Large" for different products. It classifies some deposits as Large that a practicing exploration geologist would consider small. For example, the Porphyry Copper deposits shown on the map, though Large by GSJ standards, are small by international mining standards (* PORPHYRY DEPOSITS, W.D. SINCLAIR, Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa)

The next three columns give the Province, Prefecture, and County of each deposit. Though inexact these give important location information. For example, we can tell who the local officials and administrators are, where the population lives relative to the deposit, what their source of incomes is, how many people there are, etc.. If coordinates are not currently available then this information also tells us where to look. Often Google Earth will reveal exploration or a mine once an approximate location is found. If nearby Chinese town/village names are also available then the Google Maps can help to give an even more precise location.

The following three columns give Latitude, Longitude, and Validity, a measure of the given location's accuracy: "GE", "vicinity", "estimated", and blank. A blank indicates we cannot give any supporting evidence that the location is correct, and currently are accepting a knowledgeable opinion. "Estimated" indicates the location is estimated from a map or other imprecise source, such as a Chinese academic article. These are rarely very precise as to deposit locations. "Vicinity" indicates the coordinates were given by a more or less reliable source of information, such as a journal article in the Western academic literature. "GE" indicates that in our opinion the given coordinates are exact (locates a point somewhere on the deposit), and if input to Google Earth will reveal the named deposit. The visible evidence may consist of a mine or signs of mineral exploration. Some cases are more certain than others. The coordinates are presented "as is". Corrections are welcome.

Some examples are:



The Yulong Mine showing the pit and blue roofed processing buildings. Coordinates are at the bottom left and the date of the image on the bottom right.



The Deerni Mine is an example of a much smaller operation than Yulong. Smaller mines are not difficult to find in Google Earth. Two photos showing the tailings pond and the processing plant were also found.



Qulong is a large (by Chinese standards), low grade Prophyry Copper-Gold deposit just east of Lhasa. The network of roads indicate the pattern of diamond drilling used to confirm the extent of the deposit.



The Chongjiang Porphyry Copper deposit is another example where in Google Earth the location of a deposit can be identified by the characteristic pattern of roads used for diamond drilling.



This map is from the 2003 Honglu Chinese website. Honglu was the Chinese company behind getting Continental Minerals involved in Xietongmen. It was also involved in arranging the Jiama Mine deal. The properties indicated were all listed several times with both Canadian and American securities regulators. Where we have no other information on the locations of the deposits these are examples of estimated locations.

The USGS has several large databases of mineral deposits around the world in the form of Google Earth kmz and kml files. Theseare several years old and do not use the latest available data. Where Google Earth has recent images available (obtained within the last few years), the coordinates given by the USGS, with a few exceptions, are found to be incorrect, but most likely in the vicinity of the named deposit. This claim is based on the experience of often being able to find in Google Earth a plausible deposit location in the vicinity of the USGS coordinates. The USGS kml and kmz databases may also fail sometimes by giving different coordinates for one deposit in different databases. In this case searching GE to locate the most plausible alternative is a necessity. Though the USGS website provides a site to send questions and requests for information, our experience is that when questions about accuracy of coordinates and inconsistency of kml databases about deposits on the Tibetan Plateau were made their China Specialist had no interest in correcting the errors in the USGS mineral deposit database. Though useful in a general way, the Geological Survey of Canada's kml database is sufficiently inaccurate with respect to coordinates that we stopped referring to it. A xls file can be downloaded from the Geological Survey of Japan. Though of interest, and doubtlessly the best data at the time, it wasn't particularly useful as well. Amateur deposit databases, such as that at mindat.org fared better, but like the USGS, GSC, GSJ databases are mainly based on coordinates given in academic articles, and are consequently only approximate. Despite this limitation, the USGS mineral deposit databases are invaluable. When used with Google Earth coordinates often can be corrected. Google Earth is constantly updating its database of satellite images and we believe in time every deposit of significance will be revealed by it.


Two examples of using Google Earth to investigate current issues.
1) Recent reports of extensive pollution from the area near Kumbum Gompa south of Xining in Qinghai were supported by GE images locating the large industrial area, a cement plant, and an open pit mine, all of which intersected the rivers on which the local population depended on and complained were being poisoned. The Google Earth views provide significant evidence of damage to the natural waterways.



2) In northern Yushu Prefecture, Qinghai, a large area called the Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve, has been set aside, it is said, to protect the grasslands and the sources of the Yellow, Yangtze and Mekong Rivers. Nomads of the region have been forced to settle and sell their herds. A Canadian company Inter-Citic, in a Joint Venture with the Qinghai Geological Survey Institute, is carrying out exploration for gold on the northwest edge of this reserve, and they report having discovered a large deposit just outside the reserve. In Google Earth we can see their camp, and the damage they have done to the grasslands as the result of mineral exploration. There is a stream next to their camp, and if you follow it enters the reserve and, eventually, the Yellow River. The evidence given by GE images suggests that Inter-Citic is polluting the sources of the Yellow River. The area they are in should be in the reserve, if a reserve is necessary at all. Going 50 km to the east, in the heart of the reserve, exploration trenches are visible in GE, very similar to the trenches Inter-Citic has made to expose the bedrock for sampling. This raises the questions as to who is doing this exploration and why is it being permitted.



The next three columns give references. In those cases where they are not particularly solid, think of them as a thread that may lead somewhere useful.

Finally, where we could, owners of the deposit are given. We were not always able to do this in the time we had available, but these columns indicate the direction we are heading. Once a company is identified the people behind it can be identified, then the relations between them. Forbes recently published an article stating 90% of the 1000 richest people in China are either in the CCP or are very closely connected with it. This fact, along with well known high level of corruption of Chinese officials, may explain more than politics or culture.

Areas of Interest
There are several regions which standout with respect to certain types of deposits.
The Qiadam Basin in Haixi prefecture of Qinghai is noted for its numerous large salt lakes and its petroleum deposits. These have been exploited by the PRC since the 1950s.

Just to the north of the Qiadam Basin is a gold belt, the best known mine being Tanjianshan which a Joint Venture between Eldorado Gold Corp of Vancouver, Canada, Qinghai Number One Geological Brigade and Dachaidan Gold Mine (Qinghai).

To the south in Yushu Prefecture of Qinghai is the Songpan - Ganze Mobile Belt, which is associated with gold deposits. The belt extends across Qinghai from the Xoh Nature Reserve, into the Tibetan areas of Sichuan. The noted deposit in this region is the Dachang gold deposit which is owned by Inter-Citic (Canada) and the Qinghai Geological Survey Institute. Inter-Citic reports about 40 tonnes of reserves proven and inferred. Xinhua reports it has 195 tonnes confirmed and "will have proven reserves of 300 tonnes by 2015” ("China says Tibetan gold mine amongst largest in Asia", Phayul, August 30, 2011). While the quantities are exaggerated, and the logic sloppy, what this (Xinhua publishing a promotional article of this sort) does suggest is that the Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve (SNNR) will be mined for gold at the very headwaters of the Yellow River. Similar gold deposits are expected to be found in the region. For example, 50 km. to the east, well within the SNNR, exploration trenches can be clearly seen.



A map published by Inter-Citic showing the locations of the Songpan-Ganze gold belt and the Dachang deposit.

In TAR several areas stand out with respect to particular minerals. Two of them, the Gangdese Porphyry Copper Belt extending east-west just north of the Yarlung Tsangpo in the region of Lhasa and the Yulong Porphyry Copper Belt extending north-south parallel to the Drichu from south Qinghai, through Qamdo into Yunnan, are clearly visible on the map. An additional Porphyry Copper belt may also exist in the Changtang.

A Lead-Zinc belt also follows the Nujiang. Chromium is found south the Yarlung Tsangpo in Shannon. There are a number of salt lakes in TAR but only Zabuye seems the only one to have been exploited profitably on any scale.

Information regarding Uranium deposits is a state secret in China. Two we know about are Zonglongde in Riwoche, Chamdo Prefecture, accidentally revealed in a China NetTV SEC filing, and No. 792 Uranium Mine in Thewo County, Gansu, reported in the media due to protests regarding its illegal reopening and resulting pollution. As well as Zonglongde, a number of other deposits in Chamdo mentioned in the China NetTV report are suspected to also be Uranium deposits: Yuqu, Panong, Qinong, and Gexiong. They were claimed to be deposits of minerals which are never extracted except as secondary products.

Internet Sources

ChinaMining

Hunter Dickinson (Continental Minerals, Shetongmon, Shigatse, TAR)

Eldorado (Tanjianshan, Haixi, Qinghai)

Geological Survey of Canada, World and Canadian Mineral Deposits

Geological Survey of Japan, Mineral Resources of East Asia

Google Earth Download

Inter-Citic (Dachang, Yushu, Qinghai)

Beijing Headman Mining Evaluation Firm

Huatailong, the company that operates the Gyama Mine
Mandarin Tools


mindat.org, mineralogical database

Phayul

Radio Free Asia

China Digital Times

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Corporate Filings Search

Canadian SEDAR

USGS Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS)

USGS Mineral Resources On-Line Spatial Data


References
ACADEMIC ARTICLE LIST

If an article concerns a particular deposit, or collection of deposits, the primary name the deposit will follow the names of the authors and year. For example for the Jiama Mine it would look like (author, year, Jiama)

A

(An Yin and T. Mark Harrison, 2000, Himalayan Tibetan Orogen)
An Yin and T. Mark Harrison
GEOLOGIC EVOLUTION OF THE HIMALAYAN TIBETAN OROGEN
Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2000. 28:211–80

B

(Bauer, K.; Childs, G., 2008)
Kenneth Bauer, Geoff Childs;
Demographics, Development, and the Environment in Tibetan Areas; 2008 - 04

C

(Chen Yongqing et al, 2008, Pulang)
Chen Yongqing, Huang Jingning, Liang Zhen
Geochemical Characteristics and Zonation of Primary Halos of Pulang Porphyry Copper Deposit, Northwestern Yunnan Province, Southwestern China
Journal of China University of Geosciences, Vol. 19, No. 4, p.371–377, August 2008

(Chengyou Feng et al, 2009, Tuolugou)
Chengyou Feng, Wenjun Qu, Dequan Zhang, Xingyan Dang, Andao Du, Daxin Li a, Hongquan She
Re–Os dating of pyrite from the Tuolugou stratabound Co(Au) deposit, eastern Kunlun Orogenic Belt, northwestern China
Ore Geology Reviews 36 (2009) 213–220

G

(X.X. Gu et al, 2002 et al, NW Sichuan Au)
X.X. Gu, J.M. Liub, O. Schulzc, F. Vavtarc, M.H. Zheng
Syngenetic origin for the sediment-hosted disseminated gold
deposits in NW Sichuan, China: ore fabric evidence
Ore Geology Reviews 22 (2002) 91– 116

(Guangming LI et al, 2006, Skarn Cu-Au±Mo Deposits)
Guangming LI, Kezhang QIN, Kuishou DING, Tiebing LIU, Jinxiang LI, Shaohuai WANG, Shanyuan JIANG and Xingchun ZHANG
Geology, Ar-Ar Age and Mineral Assemblage of Eocene Skarn Cu-Au±Mo Deposits in the Southeastern Gangdese Arc, Southern Tibet: Implications for Deep Exploration
RESOURCE GEOLOGY, vol. 56, no. 3, 315–336, 2006

(GUO Zu-jun et al, 2008, Qiangtang Petroleum)
GUO Zu-jun, LI Yong-tie, NAN Zheng-bing, YE He-fei
Relationship between deformation structure and petroleum accumulation and preservation, Qiangtang Basin, Tibet
PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT Volume 35, Issue 5, October 2008

H

(HE Shuye et al, 2009, Yazigou)
HE Shuyue,LI Dongsheng,LI Lianglin,QI Lanying and HE Shoufu
Re—Os Age of Molybdenite from the Yazigou Copper(Molybdenum) Mineralized Area in Eastern Kunlun of Qinghai Province,and Its Geological Significance
Geotectonica et Metallogenia V. 33, No. 2, 236-242, May 2009

(Hou Zengqian et al, 2003, Dongqinnong)
Hou Zengqian, Wang Liquan, Khin Zaw, Mo Xuanxue, Wang Mingjie, Li Dingmou, and Pan Guitang;
Post-collisional crustal extension setting and VHMS mineralization in the Jinshajiang orogenic belt, southwestern China. Ore Geology Reviews 22, 177-199; 2003

(Hou Zengqian et al, 2003, Yulong etc.)
HOU ZENGQIAN, MA HONGWEN, KHIN ZAW, ZHANG YUQUAN, WANG MINGJIE, WANG ZENG, PAN GUITANG, TANG RENLI;
The Himalayan Yulong Porphyry Copper Belt: Product of Large-Scale Strike-Slip
Faulting in Eastern Tibet; 2003

(Hou Zengqian et al, 2003, Yulong belt)
Hou Zengqian, Ma Hongwen, Khin Zaw, Zhang Yuquan, Wang Mingje, Wang Zeng, Pan Guitang, Tang Renli
The Himalayan Yulong Porphyry Copper Belt: Product of Large-Scale Strike-Slip Faulting in Eastern Tibet
Economic Geology Vol. 98, 2003, pp. 125–145

(Z.Q. Hou et al, 2004, Adakitic intrusives S Tibet)
Z.Q. Hou, Y.F. Gao, X.M. Qu, Z.Y. Rui, X.X. Mo
Origin of adakitic intrusives generated during mid-Miocene east-west extension in southern Tibet
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 220 (2004) 139-155

(Zengqian Hou et al, 2007, Sanjiang metallogenesis)
Zengqian Hou, Khin Zaw, Guitang Pan, Xuanxue Mo, Qiang Xu, Yunzhong Hu, Xingzhen Li
Sanjiang Tethyan metallogenesis in S.W. China: Tectonic setting, metallogenic epochs and deposit types
Ore Geology Reviews 31 (2007) 48–87

(Hou Zengqian, 2007, Yulong)
Hou Zengqian, Xie Yuling, Xu Wenyi, Li Yinqing, Zhu Xlangkun, Khin Zaw, G, Beaudoin, Rui Zongyao, HUang Wei, Luobu Ciren
Yulong Deposit, Eastern Tibet: A High-Sulfidation Cu-Au Porphyry Copper Deposit in the Eastern Indo-Asian Collision Zone
International Geology Review, Vol. 49, 2007, p. 235–258.

(HOU Zeng-qian et al, 2006, Tibetan Plateau Metallogeneses)
HOU Zeng-qian, MO Xuan-xu, YANG Zhi-ming, WANG An-jian, PAN Gui-tang, QU Xiao-ming, NIE Feng-un
Metallogeneses in the collisional orogen of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau:Tectonic
setting, tempo-spatial distribution and ore deposit types
GEOLOGY IN CHINA Vol.33.No.2, Apr,2006

(Zengqian Hou et al, 2007, Sanjiang Metallogenesis)
Zengqian Hou, Khin Zaw, Guitang Pan, Xuanxue Mo, Qiang Xu, Yunzhong Hu, Xingzhen Li;
Sanjiang Tethyan metallogenesis in S.W. China: Tectonic setting, metallogenic epochs and deposit types; 2007

(Zengqian Hou et al, 2008, Gangdese porphyry copper belt)
Zengqian Hou, Zhiming Yang, Xiaoming Qu, Xiangjin Meng, Zhenqing Li, G. Beaudoin, Zongyao Rui, Yongfeng Gao, Khin Zaw;
The Miocene Gangdese porphyry copper belt generated during post-collisional extension in the Tibetan Orogen; 2008

(Zengqian Hou et al, 2009, REE Belt)
Zengqian Hou, Shihong Tian, Yuling Xie, Zhusen Yang, Zhongxin Yuan, Shuping Yin,
Longsheng Yi, Hongcai Fei, Tianren Zou, Ge Bai, Xiaoyu Li
The Himalayan Mianning–Dechang REE belt associated with carbonatite–alkaline
complexes, eastern Indo-Asian collision zone, SW China
Ore Geology Reviews 36 (2009) 65–89

(Zengqian Hou & Nigel Cook, 2009, Tibet Metallogenesis)
Zengqian Hou, Nigel J. Cook
Metallogenesis of the Tibetan collisional orogen: A review and introduction
to the special issue
Ore Geology Reviews 36 (2009) 2–24

(Hu Rui-Zhong, 2002, Carlin Au)
Hu Rui-Zhong, Su Wen-Chao, Bi Xian-Wu, Tu Guang-Zhi, Albert H. Hofstra
Geology and geochemistry of Carlin-type gold deposits in China
Mineralium Deposita (2002) 37: 378–392

J

(Jiajun Liu, 2002, Sichuan Au Deposits)
Jiajun Liu, Minghua Zheng, Jianming Liu, Xuexiang Gua,
Yufeng Zhou, Caixia Feng
Mechanical transport of metallogenic materials in endogenic hydrothermal solutions: evidence from the microspherules in micro-disseminated gold deposits, northwestern Sichuan, China
Ore Geology Reviews 22 (2002) 1 –16

(Jiankang Li et al, 2006, Jiajika)
Jiankang Li, Denghong Wang, Dehui Zhang, and Xiaofang Fu;
The Source of ore-forming Fluid in Jiajika Pegmatite Type Lithium Polymetallic Deposit, Sichuan Province. Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica [Yanshikuang Wuxue Zazhi] 25(1), 45-52; (2006)

(Jingwen Mao et al, 2002, Zhebo)
Jingwen Mao, Yumin Qiu, Goldfarb, R.J., Zhaochong Zhang, Garwin, S., and Ren Fengshou ;
Geology, distribution, and classification of gold deposits in the western Qinling belt, central China. Mineralium Deposita 37(3/4), (2002)

(Jinxiang Li et al, 2011, Duolong Bangongco)
Jinxiang Li, Kezhang Qin, Guangming Li, Bo Xiao, Junxing Zhao, Lei Chen
Magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of the Cretaceous Duolong gold-rich
porphyry copper deposit in the Bangongco metallogenic belt, Tibet: Evidence
from U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 41 (2011) 525–536

K

(Khin Zaw et al, 2007, Deposit types of S. China)
Khin Zaw, Stephen G. Peters, Paul Cromie, Clive Burrett, Zengqian Hou
Nature, diversity of deposit types and metallogenic relations of South China
Ore Geology Reviews 31 (2007) 3–47

L

(Lafitte, G, 2007)
Gabriel Lafitte;
Current State of Mining in Tibet; 2007

(LI Guangming et al, 2005 ,Gangdese belt dating)
LI Guangming, RUI Zongyao, WANG Gaoming, LIN Fangcheng, LIU Bo, SHE Hongquan, FENG Chengyou, QU Wenjun
Molybdenite Re-Os dating of Jiama and Zhibula polymetallic copper deposits in Gangdese metallogenic belt of Tibet and its significance
MINERAL DEPOSITS May 2005

(LI Jian-kang et al, 2006, Jiajika)
LI Jian-kang, WANG Den-hong, ZHANG De-hui and FU Xiao-fang
The source of ore-forming fluid in Jiajika pegmatite type lithium polymetallic deposit,Sichuan Province
ACTA PETROLOGICA ET MINERALOGICA, Vol 25, No 1, Jan.2006

M

(MA Hui—ying, 2009. Xiaowolong)
MA Hui—ying,LIU Ji-shun,YIN Li—jun,LIU De-li,YANG Li—gon
Geological feature and exploration sign of Xiaowolong tin-iron—tungsten polymeallic deposit in Dulanxian in Qinghai province
MINERAL RESOURCES AND GEOLOGY V01.23,NO.4 Aug.2009

(Steffen Mischke, 2010, Qaidam Basin)
Steffen Mischke, Zhencheng Sun, Ulrike Herzschuh, Zizhen Qiao, Naida Sun
An ostracod-inferred large Middle Pleistocene freshwater lake in the presently
hyper-arid Qaidam Basin (NW China)
Quaternary International 218 (2010) 74–85

P

Stephen G. Peters, Warren J. Nokleberg, Jeff L. Doebrich, Walter J. Bawiec, Greta Orris, David M. Sutphin, and David R. Wilburn
Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Asia and the Pacific
Open-File Report 2005 –1294C, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey

(Stephen G. Peters et al, 2005, USGS Mineral Deposits of Asia)

(SHE Hongquan et al, 2005, Gangdese skarn)
SHE Hongquan, FENG Chengyou, ZHANG Dequan, PAN Guitang, LI Guangming
Characteristics and metallogenic potential of skarn copper-lead-zinc polymetallic deposits in central eastern Gangdese
MINERAL DEPOSITS May 2005

Q

(Qu Xiaoming et al, 2007, Gangdese Porphyry Genesis)
Qu Xiaoming, Zengqian Hou, Khin Zaw, Li Youguo
Characteristics and genesis of Gangdese porphyry copper deposits in the southern Tibetan Plateau: Preliminary geochemical and geochronological results
Ore Geology Reviews 31 (2007) 205–223

R

S

(SHE Hong—quan et al, 2007, Ulan Uzhur)
Geological characteristics and genesis of the Ulan Uzhur porphyry copper deposit in Qinghai
SHE Hong—quan, ZHANG De—quan, JING xiang—yan, GUAN Jun,
ZHU Hua—pin, FENG cheng—you, LI Da一xin
GEOLOGY IN CHINA V01.34.No.2 Apr., 2007

(Shen Yongsheng et al, 2009, Hongshuihe)
SHEN Yong—sheng,WANG Xu—chun,ZHANG Yu·jie
Study on genesis and geological characteristics of Hongshuihe iron deposit in Qinghai province
MINERAL RESOURCES AND GEOLOGY V01.23,No.4 Aug.,2009

Shenghao Yan et al, 2003, Meiduo)
mindat

(SHE Hong—quan et al, 2007, Ulan Uzhur)
Geological characteristics and genesis of the Ulan Uzhur porphyry copper deposit in Qinghai
SHE Hong—quan,ZHANG De—quan,JING xiang—yan,GUAN Jun,
ZHU Hua—pin,FENG cheng—you,LI Da一xin
GEOLOGY IN CHINA V01.34.No.2 Apr.,2007

(Sihong Jiang et al, 2009, Mayum)
Sihong Jiang, Fengjun Nie, Peng Hu, Xinrong Lai, Yifei Liu
Mayum: an orogenic gold deposit in Tibet, China
Ore Geology Reviews 36 (2009) 160–173

(Singer, D.A. et al, 2008, Porphyry Cu Deposits)
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C.:
Porphyry copper deposits of the world: Database and grade and tonnage models, 2008. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155; (2008)

T

(Taihe Zhou et al, 2002, Gold deposit in China)
Taihe Zhou, Richard J. Goldfarb, G. Neil Phillips
Tectonics and distribution of gold deposits in China – an overview
Mineralium Deposita (2002) 37: 249–282

(TANG Gao-lin et al., 2006, Liwu)
TANG Gao-lin,WANG Fa-qing,QOU Lin-lin;
Geological Characteristics and Prospecting Perspective of the Liwu Copper Deposit in Sichuan,WS China; 2006 - 04

V

(A. Vengosh, 1995, Qaidam Basin)
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2 comments:

Anonymous said...

This is really great and thorough reporting, but sad to hear. I would suggest that the maps/graphics be larger like the ones from 12 July. They are hard to read when they are small. The spread sheets are very useful. If I get a chance I will see if I can locate some of the estimated locations. Bruce Lee

The Tibetan Plateau Blog said...

Thanks, that would be great!